Earrings Sterling Silver Citrine Marcasite
Earring Back Types
The backing is an important part of an earring, providing a secure closure and comfortable fit. Keep in mind, some earring styles work better with certain back types. Experiment with the different types to find the best fit for you!
Butterfly Back: A double looped piece resembling a butterfly that fits over a post. Variations on this design are called push back clasps. The basic post and butterfly back are usually used for stud earrings and lighter weight drop earrings.
Hinged Snap Backs: This clasp features a hinged post that snaps into a groove on the back of the earring. It is commonly found on hoops. Sometimes the hinged post is curved to provide more room to fit around the ear, sometimes called a saddleback.
Hook Backs: This earring backing is simply a long, bent post that fits through the piercing. Hooks have several variations, most notably the shepherd's hook and the French hook. While thin wire hooks reduce the weight of long earrings, making them more comfortable, they aren't as secure as other clasp styles.
Lever Back: A hinged lever snaps shut against the curved post to form a closed loop around the ear lobe. This clasp is very secure and good for large or medium sized styles that drop just below the ear.
Omega: Also called French clips, this clasp has a straight post and a looped lever. The hinged lever closes around the post and is held against the ear with pressure. The omega clasp is the most secure clasp, especially for the larger, heavier earrings.
Screw back: This backing is a slight variation of the standard post and butterfly nut back. Instead of pushing on the back, the nut twists onto the threaded post. A screw back post design is often preferred for expensive diamond stud earrings that require increased security.
Sterling silver, also called fine silver, is a beautifully lustrous cool-toned precious metal favored in fine jewelry among other products. The most reflective of all metals (excluding mercury), sterling silver looks stunning by itself and brings out the best hues in an array of colorful gemstones.
Sterling silver can be polished to a higher sheen than platinum. In fact, Ag, the chemical symbol for silver, comes from a word that means “white and shining.” The surface of silver can boast that shiny, polished appearance, or can be brushed, satin, matte, sandblasted, antiqued or oxidized (chemically blackened).
In order to be called sterling silver, a metal must be made up of a minimum of 92.5% pure silver and 7.5% alloy (meaning other metals), including but not limited to copper and nickel. The alloy is added to pure silver to make the metal more durable, tougher and harder. Sterling silver is designated a fineness of “925.” Pieces with sterling silver may be marked “sterling.”
Finishes on Sterling Silver
Rhodium Plating: Rhodium plating is a complex and laborious process that enhances the luster and beauty and extends the life of silver. A member of the platinum metal group, rhodium is often used as a finishing touch on silver jewelry. It's a shiny silvery metal with a very white and reflective appearance, much like mercury. It's also very hard, so it withstands much wear and tear, resists natural tarnishing and wonderfully mimics the brilliant finish of freshly polished silver.
Finishing, or plating, is a common treatment with sterling silver. Popular types of plating are rhodium plating, gold plating and anti-tarnish plating. Plating is used to extend the life and sheen of the jewelry. After sizing or buffing a piece of jewelry with a machine, it must be re-plated to restore the finish.
Caring for Sterling Silver
Avoid exposing sterling silver to direct sunlight and harsh chemicals, including chlorine, ammonia, hair products, perfumes, cosmetics, perspiration and strong jewelry cleaning solutions.
Periodically wash sterling silver with mild dish soap and warm water. Rinse well and dry completely with a soft cloth before storing because moisture can cause tarnish.
Lightly polish sterling silver frequently with a soft silver-polishing cloth, avoiding abrasive cloths completely.
Tarnish is easy to remove when it first forms as a yellowish tint, but becomes more difficult to remove when it becomes brown and black. Remove tarnish with a silver polish cream, avoiding immersing pieces with gemstones in tarnish-removal solutions.
Minimize scratches on sterling silver by storing it in its own compartment in your jewelry box or in a cloth pouch. Sterling silver may also be stored in sealed polyethylene bags.
Sterling silver becomes tarnished as the result of a natural chemical process that occurs when sterling silver is exposed to chemicals in the air, rubber, wool and latex. Humidity also plays a role in accelerating tarnishing. It's easy to keep your sterling silver sparkling, though, by taking a few steps to prevent tarnish and other wear and tear.
Named from the French word for lemon, “citron,” citrine is a variety of quartz available in a range of golden hues from lemon, to straw, to sun yellow, to deep gold, to orange, brown and deep red. Darker colors are more highly valued, including the medium golden-orange and dark-sherry colors, sometimes called Madeira citrines after the color of the wine.
Citrine crystals can form together with amethyst to form ametrine, or with smoky quartz to form bicolored quartz. Citrine is generally less expensive than amethyst, and is also available in a wide range of calibrated sizes and shapes, including very large sizes. Considered an alternative to topaz as the birthstone for November, it is also thought to be the traditional gift for couples celebrating their 13th and 17th wedding anniversaries. Citrine ranks a 7.0 on the Mohs Scale, and because of this durability, it is ideal for jewelry wear.
Almost all citrine on the market is heat-treated amethyst, and generally starts life as either smoky quartz or amethyst geodes. Heat treatments first turn them clear and then give them a permanent color ranging from yellow to brownish-red. In some amethyst deposits, the amethyst has been partially or fully changed to brown citrine by natural means of heating, thereby transforming it into citrine. Natural citrine is pale yellow to orange, and occurs in much lighter hues than the heat-treated material. Citrines whose colors have been produced by artificial means tend to have much more of an orange or reddish caste than those found in nature. Since most citrine was originally amethyst that was heated to turn its color to gold, both citrine and amethyst jewelry should be kept away from prolonged exposure to strong light or heat.
Most citrine is mined in Brazil, but almost all of the Brazilian material is heat-treated amethyst. Supplies are most plentiful in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, particularly from the Serra Mine. The Ira' Mine also produces large quantities of the gem. Citrine can also be found in the Ural Mountains of Russia, in Dauphine, France, and in Madagascar.
In ancient times, citrine was carried as a protection against snake venom and evil thoughts. It was thought to give calmness and mental balance to its wearer. Throughout history, people have confused citrine for topaz. Many citrines were sold as topaz and thus thought to carry the same qualities, such as knowledge and beauty. Today, citrine symbolizes truth and integrity, and is believed to promote creativity and personal clarity.
Marcasite, a name derived from the Arabic word for pyrite, is the term applied to small polished and faceted stones inlayed in sterling silver. Their color is usually described is being pale bronze, looking rather gray with a greenish tint. A multi-colored tarnish may exist as a result of oxidation. With a metallic luster and opaque crystals, marcasite ranks 6.0-6.5 on the Mohs Scale. Occurrences are worldwide, especially in the United States, Mexico, France, Peru, China and Russia.