The "vermeil" technique of plating sterling silver with gold originated in France in the 1750s. It differs from "gold filled" or "gold plated" in terms of the thickness or thinness of the microns over sterling silver. "Gold filled" pieces have a much thicker layer, between 15 and 45 microns, which is mechanically bonded to the base metal with heat and pressure. Vermeil is a more expensive version of "gold plated". It does not wear off as quickly as gold plating does. However, over time, vermeil wears off and therefore will require re-plating.
Over time your plated items will need to be re-plated. Contact your local jeweler for information on plating services.
Quartz that is formed not of one single crystal, but of finely grained microcrystals, is known as chalcedony. With a waxy, dull luster, the variety of chalcedony is even greater than transparent quartz varieties because it includes patterns and a wide range of solid colors. Chalcedony is a catchall term that includes many well-known varieties of quartz gemstones. Some kinds are so widespread in occurrence that they have been given individual names, including agate, carnelian, chrysoprase, bloodstone, onyx, flint, jasper and tiger’s eye. Occurring in every imaginable color, chalcedony has a hardness of 7.0 on the Mohs Scale. It is most prominently found in Namibia, Brazil, Turkey, Uruquay, India, Madagascar and the United States.
Because of its abundance, durability and beauty, chalcedony was one of the earliest raw materials used by humankind. The earliest recorded use of chalcedony was for projectile points, knives, weapons, tools and containers such as cups and bowls. The move from using items as weapons and tools to using the same items for ceremonial and personal adornment is very easily made. It was only natural for early humans to use their finest-looking knives for special occasions or to attach a special lance point or arrowhead to their tunics. In fact, chalcedony may have simply been elevated to gems from common and functional weapons or tools.
The term chalcedony is derived from the Greek word meaning “Chalkedon,” a town in Asia Minor. Legend has ascribed to it such powers as prevention and curing of melancholy and driving away evil spirits. It is said to stimulate maternal feelings and creativity. Chalcedony is also one of the stones listed as in the foundation of the Heavenly City, in Revelations of the Bible.